Transfer of undertakings: the concept of transfer

On August 11, 2011, in Transfer of undertakings, by Kalina Jaroslawska

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Polish labour law does not give a definition of the transfer of undertakings. However, it is traditionally understood as any organizational change which leads to transfer of ownership and includes mergers, takeovers or divisions of undertakings. Legal titles for such transfers are various: sale, lease, inheritance or other.

In the recent years, mostly under the influence of the Directive 2001/23/EC of 12 March 2001 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the safeguarding of employees’ rights in the event of transfers of undertakings, businesses or parts of undertakings or businesses, and the related EJC rulings, the understanding of the transfer of undertakings has changed, or rather – broadened to include a number of further sets of circumstances. In short, the transfer of undertakings may be considered to occur:

  • on takeover of tasks, not necessarily assets;
  • on subcontracting certain tasks to a third party contractor (in bilateral relationships);
  • on takeover of services, previously outsourced to one party, by another service provider, especially if such takeover of services was accompanied by takeover of assets related to these services (in tripartite relationships).

Obviously, not all situations described above will automatically trigger the transfer of undertakings. There are certain additional aspects which must be taken into consideration, such as:

  • the kind of day-to-day activity of the parties involved;
  • whether the takeover of tasks/services was accompanied by takeover of assets;
  • whether the tasks/services taken over constitute the major or auxiliary part of the business of the party who launched the takeover.

Because of this it is becoming increasingly difficult to state conclusively whether business transactions are caught by the transfer of undertakings. Needless to say, this leads to a lot of legal uncertainty, both on the part of the employee and the employer. Depending on particular circumstances, the party to whom tasks or services have been subcontracted may not even be aware that the transfer of undertakings has taken place, not mentioning the related employees. From this perspective, even though the broadening concept of the transfer of undertakings was originally and is still meant to protect the employees, it may oftentimes backfire rather than help.

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Work permits in Poland – EU and EEA nationals

On January 26, 2011, in Work permits, by Kalina Jaroslawska

You are allowed to work in Poland without a work permit if you are:

  • an EU member state national;
  • a national of an EEA member state other than the EU (i.e. Norway, Iceland or Liechtenstein);
  • a national of another state which is party to a free movement of people treaty concluded between that state and the European Community (for now: Switzerland),
  • a family member of a national above, i.e. his or her spouse as well as his or her descendant up to 21 years of age or depending financially on the said national.

However, the freedom to work is not absolute in the sense that there still may be some (though not very troublesome) immigration formalities to attend to, depending on the length of stay. More on this in forthcoming entries on immigration.

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I am a foreigner – do I need a work permit to work in Poland?

On January 21, 2011, in Work permits, by Kalina Jaroslawska

The answer to this question, as to most legal questions, is “it depends…”.

  1. First, it depends on the kind of work you are going to do.
  2. Second, it depends on whether you or your relatives are citizens of a country belonging to the EU or, more broadly, to the EEA.
  3. Third, it depends on the kind of legal instrument you hold to legitimize your stay in Poland.

These issues will be discussed in greater detail in the next few posts.

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